Magazine 15 June 2021

Cystitis in Children

  1. Symptoms of cystitis in children
  2. Causes of cystitis in children
  3. Diagnosis of cystitis in children
  4. Cystitis in children: treatment and prevention
  5. Summary


Dear parents,
Cystitis in children is a common condition, and it is generally not serious if diagnosed in time.

It is important to note that toddlers are not always able to describe their symptoms. Thus, it is crucial that parents are attentive to any visible signs and symptoms.

In children, the symptoms most associated with cystitis are accompanied by non-specific signs such as loss of appetite, irritability, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, debilitation, and abdominal bloating.

Let’s find out together how to recognize cystitis in children, what action steps are necessary, and how we can treat it.

Symptoms of Cystitis in Children

Recognizing cystitis in children is not always easy because the symptoms often occur in an indistinct form.

The signs that generally suggest to us that something is wrong are:

  • Increased body temperature.
  • Vomit.
  • Tiredness and lack of energy.
  • Irritability.
  • Lack of appetite.

Other more specific signs of the presence of cystitis in children could be:

  • Pain or burning when urinating.
  • Frequent need to pee.
  • Holding your pee voluntarily.
  • Changing bathroom habits, such as wetting oneself or the bed.
  • Pain in the side or lower abdomen.
  • Foul smelling urine.
  • Presence of blood in the urine.
  • Turbid urine.

Causes of Cystitis in Children

In most cases, cystitis in children is caused by pathogenic bacteria that gets into the bladder through the urethra, the conduit from which urine comes out.

This can happen for many reasons, including but not limited to the following:

  • The child wiped the bottom, from the back forward, bringing the soiled toilet paper into contact with the external genitalia. This is a more common problem in girls because the urethra is closer to the anus than the anatomical conformation of boys;
  • Fecal bacteria came into contact with the urethra once the diaper was full.

There is no exact reason why some children develop episodes of cystitis (about 10%) and others do not, but some children are more susceptible to problems such as:

  • Constipation
    The large intestine, due to obstruction by stool, expands, creating pressure on the bladder and making it more difficult to empty completely. Urine left in the bladder is, without a shadow of a doubt, a breeding ground for pathogenic bacteria.
  • Holding back pee
    This is a common phenomenon in children, even when they feel the urge to pee.
  • Vesicourethral reflux
    This is a less common condition in which urine returns from the bladder to the ureter and into the kidneys. This issue results from malfunctioning valves in the ureter.


Diagnosis of Cystitis in Children

The diagnosis of cystitis in children is made, starting with the description of symptoms, a physical examination and analysis of a urine sample. In particular, a urine culture, complete urine examination, and antibiogram will be required.

Collecting a urine sample from a child is not always easy, especially when handling infants or younger children. In such cases, it is essential to seek the help of the doctor or a nurse.

For younger subjects who are unable to pee on command, you can proceed with urine collection using the following steps:

  1. Clean your genitals with intimate disinfectant. Dilute the disinfectant in 100 ml of water and let it dissolve. With a gauze, take some of the liquid.
  2. In boys, gently lower the foreskin, in girls, spread the labia majora and clean the area with soaked gauze.
  3. Urine collection can be done “on the fly” or with the aid of a urine collection bag (commercially, there are bags for girls and boys).
  4. The bag can be applied for a maximum of 30 minutes, after which a new one must be used.


For older children, who are already used to using the toilet on their own, it is possible to collect urine at home in a sterile container that can be easily found in pharmacies. In particular, the intermediate micturition (neither the initial nor the final urine stream) shall be collected.

Take care that the container does not come into contact with other objects, so as not to alter the results of the analysis.

majority of cases, following diagnosis, treatment is carried out directly without further medical investigation.
In some circumstances it is necessary to investigate further with other tests if:

  • The subject is less than 1 year old.
  • There is no improvement in symptoms 24-48 hours after the start of treatment.
  • The child has unusual symptoms such as reduced urinary flow or hypertension (high blood pressure).
  • The child has already had other repeated episodes of cystitis.

Cystitis in Children: Treatment and Prevention

In children, cystitis can be treated using antibiotics, for a variable period of time depending on the location of the infection (upper or lower part of the urogenital apparatus).

D-Mannose for Children

A natural remedy, to be submitted to the attention of the trusted pediatrician, is the pure d-mannose contained in our supplement Dimann Pure Baby.

It is a natural ingredient that can block pathogenic bacteria that attack the walls of the bladder. Since it is natural, it is a delicate remedy even for children, without any contraindications.
It is also important to act so that the symptoms are reduced to avoid, for example, that the burning may lead the child to voluntarily withhold urine. In this regard, I also wrote “Symptoms of Cystitis: The Remedies“.

Check out our Pediatric Cystitis Kits to treat or hinder the onset of cystitis.

To reduce the chances of your child experiencing cystitis episodes, implement the following behaviors:

  • To start, if possible, practice breastfeeding for the first six months of life to encourage proper development of the infant’s immune system and reduce the risk of constipation
  • Teaching children proper personal hygiene helps minimize the chances of bacteria getting to the urethra. Additionally, each member of the family must use personal towels, which must be washed frequently at 60°.
  • Make sure your child drinks and goes to the bathroom to pee regularly

How Much and What Should You Give Your Child to Drink?

Depending on age, the amount of fluids your baby should take is:

1. From 7 to 12 months – 600 ml.

2. From 1 to 3 years – 900 ml.

3. From 4 to 8 years – 1200 ml.

4. From 9 to 13 years old – 1800 ml.

5. From 14 to 18 years old – 2000 ml.

Some beverages are better than others for bladder health. For example, beverages with caffeine/theine or containing artificial sweeteners can irritate bladder walls.
Freshly squeezed fruit juices are a good alternative to water, but they should be diluted.
Ideally, during periods of acute cystitis, one should limit water consumption for a couple of weeks, then gradually reintroduce other types of drinks.

  • We also recommend that you avoid tight underwear in nylon or synthetic fabrics, and instead opt for cotton underwear with a fit that is not too snug.
  • Additionally, avoid using scented or overly foaming cleansers, which may irritate mucous membranes and increase the risk of urinary tract infections.
  • Solve, step by step, the problem of constipation with the help of advice from your pediatrician. Usually, eating different types of fruits and vegetables is enough to get your child’s gut working properly again. Taking probiotics is also useful, both through foods that are rich in them, such as yogurt, and through food supplements
  • Even beyond cystitis episodes, a regular daily intake of D-Mannose can ensure proper bladder cleansing and prevent any existing pathogenic bacteria from reproducing.

Now that you’ve had your fill of information,

I want to reassure you: if you suspect that your child has cystitis, contact the pediatrician who will prescribe the most appropriate tests to confirm or deny the diagnosis.

The most important thing is to be aware of how to intervene and

of what behaviors to adopt because

to prevent these episodes from ever happening again!


You are not alone 😊

A hug,





In this article we covered the symptoms, causes, and remedies of cystitis in children:

  • In addition to the symptoms normally associated with bacterial cystitis, children may show atypical symptoms such as fever, vomiting, lack of appetite, or a tendency to retain pee.
  • Cystitis in children mainly occurs as a result of direct contact between the external genitals and fecal bacteria.
  • Approximately 10% of children are more vulnerable to developing cystitis due to constipation, a tendency to retain pee, or problems with the flow of urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  • The diagnosis is made through a urine analysis to which other tests are added in the presence of particular conditions.
  • Cystitis in children is treated with the use of antibiotics but the situation can also be improved with pure D-Mannose.
  • By adopting a series of behaviors, it is possible to reduce the incidence of cystitis in children.

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